SharePoint has many interfaces, and you tend to get lost in them over time
So here is a summary of the most frequently used ones on the output side of SharePoint.
Web Service Interface :
When you want to get the XML response of the list definitions, use this syntax :
This will give you a the SOAP response
Or you can use this syntax :
To get the GUID of a list, just go to the Settings Page of the list, and look at the URL. (Not the VIEW)
To use the GUID you need to do a URL decoding. There are multiple online decoders on the net.
Once you have put it all together the result will look like this.
Here you can find the z:row Nodes and Attributes, you need for JQuery SPServices functions.
REST or oDATA interface
You can add the List Name, after here _vti_bin/listdata.svc/ListName to get the REST interface of that list.
You get an RSS Feed Like this :
Where you have a Search and a few sort options.
URL filter and Sort Options
You can also add filter and sort parameters in the URL, like this :
URL Query interface
Of course you can use the usual Query string interface to pass on variables.
When you have the SSRS running in integrated mode you can access the reports using the SSRS URL Parameter Interface.
On the input side you can have as well a database, SOAP and REST connector Interface
Using SP Designer
Example of a SOAP interface
There is of course much more to tell about SharePoint Interfaces and Technologies.
See here on How To : How to Access Data on SharePoint
And as a scripter you have access to most of the interfaces, see here for some examples
Example of accessing the REST interface
More options, see here URL Protocol